Minggu, 26 Juni 2011

Cytoplasmic Deposits

Cytoplasmic deposits are usually transitory components of the cytoplasm, composed mainly of accumulated metabolites or other substances. The accumulated molecules occur in several forms, one of them being lipid droplets in adipose tissue, adrenal cortex cells, and liver cells (Figure 2–38). Carbohydrate accumulations are also visible in several cells in the form of glycogen. After impregnation with lead salts, glycogen appears as collections of electron-dense particles (Figure 2–39). Proteins are stored in glandular cells as secretory granules or secretory vesicles (Figure 2–29); under stimulation, these proteins are periodically released into the extracellular medium.

Figure 2-38

Section of adrenal gland showing lipid droplets (L) and abundant anomalous mitochondria (M). x19,000.

Figure 2-39

Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron-dense particles (arrows). The dark structures with a dense core are peroxisomes. Mitochondria (M) are also shown. x30,000.

Deposits of colored substances—pigments—are often found in cells (Figure 2–40). They may be synthesized by the cell (eg, in the skin melanocytes) or come from outside the body (eg, carotene). One of the most common pigments is lipofuscin, a yellowish-brown substance present mainly in permanent cells (eg, neurons, cardiac muscle) that increases in quantity with age. Its chemical constitution is complex. It is believed that granules of lipofuscin derive from secondary lysosomes and represent deposits of indigestible substances. A widely distributed pigment, melanin is abundant in the epidermis and in the pigment layer of the retina in the form of dense intracellular membrane-limited granules.

Figure 2-40
Section of amphibian liver shows cells with pigment deposit (PD) in the cytoplasm, a macrophage (M), hepatocytes (H), and a neutrophil leukocyte (N). In this resin-embedded material it is possible to see mitochondria (pale red) and lysosomes (blue) in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes. Only with resin embedding is it possible to obtain such information. Giemsa stain. Medium magnification.

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9 comments:

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